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                    綜合集成研討廳體系起源、發展現狀與趨勢

                    王丹力 鄭楠 劉成林

                    王丹力,  鄭楠,  劉成林.  綜合集成研討廳體系起源、發展現狀與趨勢.  自動化學報,  2021,  47(8): 1822?1839 doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c210062
                    引用本文: 王丹力,  鄭楠,  劉成林.  綜合集成研討廳體系起源、發展現狀與趨勢.  自動化學報,  2021,  47(8): 1822?1839 doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c210062
                    Wang Dan-Li,  Zheng Nan,  Liu Cheng-Lin.  Hall for workshop of metasynthetic engineering: the origin, development status and future.  Acta Automatica Sinica,  2021,  47(8): 1822?1839 doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c210062
                    Citation: Wang Dan-Li,  Zheng Nan,  Liu Cheng-Lin.  Hall for workshop of metasynthetic engineering: the origin, development status and future.  Acta Automatica Sinica,  2021,  47(8): 1822?1839 doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c210062

                    綜合集成研討廳體系起源、發展現狀與趨勢

                    doi: 10.16383/j.aas.c210062
                    基金項目: 國家自然科學基金(61872363), 北京市自然基金委—北京 市教委聯合項目(21JD0044), 中國科學院自動化研究所基礎科研項目(Y9J2FZ0801), 中國科學院戰略性先導科技專項(XDA27000000)資助
                    詳細信息
                      作者簡介:

                      王丹力:中國科學院自動化研究所研究員. 主要研究方向為復雜系統, 綜合集成, 數據挖掘, 群體智能, 人機交互, 生理計算. E-mail: danli.wang@ia.ac.cn

                      鄭楠:中國科學院自動化研究所復雜系統管理與控制國家重點實驗室副研究員. 主要研究方向為復雜系統, 綜合集成, 數據挖掘, 個性化推薦. 本文通信作者. E-mail: nan.zheng@ia.ac.cn

                      劉成林:中國科學院自動化研究所模式識別國家重點實驗室研究員, 主任. 主要研究方向為模式識別, 機器學習, 視覺大數據處理. E-mail: liucl@nlpr.ia.ac.cn

                    • 1 http://news.sohu.com/20080322/n255846609.shtml
                    • 收稿日期 2021-01-20 錄用日期 2021-04-16 Manuscript?received?January?20,?2021;?accepted?April?16,?2021 國家自然科學基金(61872363), 北京市自然基金委—北京市教委聯合項目(21JD0044), 中國科學院自動化研究所基礎科研項目(Y9J2FZ0801), 中國科學院戰略性先導科技專項(XDA27000000) Supported?by?National?Natural?Science?Foundation?of?China?(61872363),?Beijing?Municipal?Natural?Science?Foundation?(21JD0044),?the?Research?and?Development?Fund?of?Institute?of?Automation,?Chinese?Academy?of Sciences?(Y9J2FZ0801),??the Strate-gic?Priority?Research?Program?of Chinese?Academy?of?Sci-ences (XDA27000000) 本文責任編委?莫紅 Recommended?by?Associate?Editor MO Hong 1.?中國科學院自動化研究所復雜系統管理與控制國家重點實驗室?北京?100190 ?2.?中國科學院大學人工智能學院?北京 100049 3.?中國科學院自動化研究所模式識別國家重點實驗室?北京?100190 1.?The?State?Key?Laboratory?for?Management?and?Control?of Complex?Systems,?Institute?of?Automation,?Chinese?Academy?of
                    • Sciences, Beijing 100190 2. School of Artificial Intelligence, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 3. Na-tional Laboratory of Pattern Recognition, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190

                    Hall for Workshop of Metasynthetic Engineering: The Origin, Development Status and Future

                    Funds: Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (61872363), Beijing Municipal Natural Science Foundation (21JD0044), the Research and Development Fund of Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Y9J2FZ0801), the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA27000000)
                    More Information
                      Author Bio:

                      WANG Dan-Li Professor at the State Key Laboratory for Management and Control of Complex Systems, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Her research interest covers complex systems, metasynthesis, data mining, group intelligence, human interaction, and psychosomatic computation

                      ZHENG Nan Associate professor at the State Key Laboratory for Management and Control of Complex Systems, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Her research interest covers complex systems, metasynthesis, data mining and personalized recommendations. Corresponding author of this paper

                      LIU Cheng-Lin Professor and director of National Laboratory of Pattern Recognition, Institute of Automation of Chinese Academy of Sciences. His research interest covers pattern recognition, machine learning, and big visual data processing

                    • 摘要:

                      20世紀80年代前后, 國外學術界開始了復雜性與復雜系統的研究. 與此同時, 以錢學森為代表的一批中國學者也開展了與此相關的系統科學和開放的復雜巨系統的研究, 開創性地提出了綜合集成法, 進一步發展為綜合集成研討廳體系, 并取得了一些成功應用. 但是由于當時人們對綜合集成研討廳體系的認識不足, 以及技術條件所限, 其應用受到了限制. 隨著思維科學/認知科學、系統科學和信息技術、計算機技術、網絡通信技術巨大進步, 特別是近年來大數據、云計算、人工智能的飛速發展, 出現了越來越多的復雜巨系統, 亟待有效方法來處理這類問題. 在此背景下, 綜合集成研討廳體系又獲得廣泛關注. 本文回顧了綜合集成研討廳體系產生和發展的重要歷程, 分析了其典型案例, 介紹了國內外的相關研究進展, 最后提出了未來發展的幾個方向. 本文力圖為從事復雜巨系統研究和實踐的相關人員提供理論方法指導和工程范例.

                      1)  1 http://news.sohu.com/20080322/n255846609.shtml
                      2)  收稿日期 2021-01-20 錄用日期 2021-04-16 Manuscript?received?January?20,?2021;?accepted?April?16,?2021 國家自然科學基金(61872363), 北京市自然基金委—北京市教委聯合項目(21JD0044), 中國科學院自動化研究所基礎科研項目(Y9J2FZ0801), 中國科學院戰略性先導科技專項(XDA27000000) Supported?by?National?Natural?Science?Foundation?of?China?(61872363),?Beijing?Municipal?Natural?Science?Foundation?(21JD0044),?the?Research?and?Development?Fund?of?Institute?of?Automation,?Chinese?Academy?of Sciences?(Y9J2FZ0801),??the Strate-gic?Priority?Research?Program?of Chinese?Academy?of?Sci-ences (XDA27000000) 本文責任編委?莫紅 Recommended?by?Associate?Editor MO Hong 1.?中國科學院自動化研究所復雜系統管理與控制國家重點實驗室?北京?100190 ?2.?中國科學院大學人工智能學院?北京 100049 3.?中國科學院自動化研究所模式識別國家重點實驗室?北京?100190 1.?The?State?Key?Laboratory?for?Management?and?Control?of Complex?Systems,?Institute?of?Automation,?Chinese?Academy?of
                      3)  Sciences, Beijing 100190 2. School of Artificial Intelligence, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 3. Na-tional Laboratory of Pattern Recognition, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190
                    • 圖  1  綜合集成法示意圖

                      Fig.  1  Diagram of metasynthesis

                      圖  2  綜合集成研討廳框架結構示意圖

                      Fig.  2  Structural representation of HWME

                      圖  3  基于信息空間的綜合集成研討廳

                      Fig.  3  Example of CWME

                      圖  4  三個研討空間

                      Fig.  4  M-Space, M-Interaction and M-Computing

                      圖  5  綜合集成的模型框架

                      Fig.  5  Model framework of metasynthesis

                      圖  6  宏觀經濟決策系統結構圖

                      Fig.  6  Structure diagram of macro-economic decision system

                      圖  7  戰略決策綜合集成研討系統架構

                      Fig.  7  System architecture of HWME for strategic decision

                      圖  8  巨災防御與應急決策仿真系統總體框架

                      Fig.  8  General framework of catastrophe prevention and emergency decision simulation system

                      表  1  國外對復雜性、復雜系統研究的代表性工作

                      Table  1  Representative work abroad on complexity and complex system

                      序號機構/代表學者研究內容機構網址文獻
                      1圣菲研究所 (Santa Fe Institute, SFI) Holland、Arthur、Kauffman 等學者復雜自適應系統; 開創了用計算機直接去探索開放的復雜巨系統, 從“半微觀”入手, 找出可能出現的宏觀行為, 致力于理解和統一復雜的物理、生物、社會、文化、技術甚至可能的天文生物學世界中潛在的共享模式.http://www.santafe.edu/[38, 40-41]
                      2喬治·梅森大學 (George Mason University) 集成科學高級研究所Warfield 等學者結構學派, 主要采用形式邏輯 (包括集合論、關系論、圖論、布爾代數等) 來描述復雜性. 他們認為復雜性存在于人的頭腦中. 提出了復雜性的 20 條定律 (Law)、對這 20 條定律的分類 (Taxonomy)以及衡量復雜性的 5 個指標 (Index), 這三者統稱為 LTI 集.https://www2.gmu.edu/[42-43]
                      3麻省理工大學 (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT) Forrester、Senge 等學者系統動力學派, 采用常微分方程描述復雜問題, 并認為復雜性存在于所研究的系統之中. 這一學派主要研究組織理論, 特別是學習型組織等問題; 探索如何改造現有的各種組織, 使之能以“整體運作” 的全新方式進行思考, 從而提升人類組織的“群體智力” 來面對復雜問題.https://www.mit.edu/[44]
                      4Los Alamos 的非線性研究中心(Center for Nonlinear Studies, CNLS) Deka、Chertkov、RussellBent 等學者混沌理論學派, 用偏微分方程來描述復雜系統的特性, 認為復雜性存在于所研究的系統之中.https://cnls.lanl.gov/External/[45-49]
                      5國際系統工程研究所 (IIASA) Ermolieva、Folberth 等學者該機構對全球性問題進行政策導向的研究, 具體的研究領域涵蓋了系統工程、環境保護、公共服務等多個層面內容.www.iiasa.ac.at[50-52]
                      6關系復雜性評估中心 (The Centre for the Evaluation of Complexity Across the Nexus, CECAN) Gilbert、Ahrweiler 等學者該機構致力于研究食品、能源、水資源和環境領域的相關政策, 使其適應復雜的人類社會.https://www.cecan.ac.uk/[53-56]
                      7美國東北大學復雜網絡研究中心(Northeastern University, Network Science Institute, NetSI) Friedland、Grinberg
                      等學者
                      該機構的研究方向涵蓋了生物、技術、信息和社會系統等多個領域, 其中包括大型集體的決策和性能.www.barabasilab.com[57-58]
                      8美國圣母大學復雜網絡研究中心 (University of Notre Dame, Lucy Family Institute for Data and Society) Chawla 等學者該機構在社會、物理、生物、化學、健康與福祉、組織和防御系統的重大挑戰問題陳述中進行跨學科的研究.https://cnds.nd.edu/[59-60]
                      9新英格蘭復雜系統研究所 (New England Complex Systems Institute, NECSI) Bar-Yam、Morales 等學者在復雜系統科學及其應用的開發中發揮了重要作用. 該機構研究系統內的交互如何決定其行為模式, 以及系統如何與環境交互.https://necsi.edu/[61-66]
                      10悉尼科技大學 (University of Technology Sydney, UTS) Cao 等學者對于復雜組織與企業、復雜數據系統、復雜知識發現系統、復雜人工智能系統等中所涉及的多種復雜性、多種智能、多種交互與耦合等以及它們的綜合集成進行了廣泛與深入的研究, 對綜合集成計算與工程開展了擴充與應用.https://datasciences.org/Metasynthetic-engineering/[12-15,
                      67-68]
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                      表  2  國內對開放的復雜巨系統及綜合集成法的研究

                      Table  2  Domestic research on open complex giant system and metasynthesis

                      序號機構/代表學者研究內容文獻
                      1中國科學院系統科學研究所顧基發、唐錫晉等學者從綜合、集成、復雜問題求解等角度出發, 對模型集成與意見綜合進行國內外調研和分析. 提出“知識創造場”, 研究了人機結合對群體知識創造的有效支持, 探討了物理?事理?人理系統方法應用于綜合集成研討系統的實現.[76-83]
                      2中國航天科技集團公司 710 研究所于景元、周曉紀等
                      學者
                      在進行物價補貼、定價和工資的有關課題中, 運用了人機結合的思想, 將人的經驗、知識和智慧與各種資料信息集成起來, 達到定性認識到定量認識的提升. 對現代科學技術體系、總體設計部與綜合集成方法間的關系展開探討.[84-88]
                      3北京大學宋剛等學者對綜合集成法研究的起源及其演進發展進行了系統性的綜述, 揭示了整體演進規律. 指出社會實踐是其發展的主要動因, 具有明顯的跨學科屬性, 研究了綜合集成法在智慧城市、創新 2.0的時代背景下的應用場景和理論創新.[89-90]
                      4中國航天系統科學與工程研究院薛惠峰等學者以綜合集成法為基礎, 提出綜合提升方法, 構建了基于綜合集成研討廳, 以水資源管理為例, 實現了智慧水利資源管理平臺.[91]
                      5國防大學胡曉峰等學者以戰略決策問題為應用背景, 以綜合集成法為指導, 從技術的視角討論了“綜合集成研討廳”的有關問題, 提出了一種可用于軍事戰略決策的綜合集成研討環境的 XOD 體系.[92]
                      6中國人民大學苗東升等學者從哲學層面探討綜合集成法, 在認識論層面突出了認識過程與知識體系的辯證性. 認為綜合集成法過于強調應用, 其理論體系尚未建立.[93-95]
                      7北京大學馮國瑞等學者從哲學層面探討綜合集成法, 指出開放的復雜巨系統理論從復雜系統方面揭示了物質統一性, 在方法論上起到連接作用, 綜合集成法從定性、定量認識的視角重新審視了認識發展過程.[96-98]
                      8北京聯合大學盧明森等學者指出大成智慧是現代科學技術體系、系統科學、思維科學等的綜合集成. 主編了《創新思維學引論》(普通高等教育 “十五” 國家級規劃教材)一書, 從創新思維的基本原理、創新思維必備的心理素質、創新思維的方式、方法與方法論, 以及創新思維實踐等角度系統性的闡述了創新思維學, 為我國開展創新性思維教育做出了貢獻.[99-103]
                      下載: 導出CSV
                      360彩票
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                    • 收稿日期:  2021-01-20
                    • 網絡出版日期:  2021-05-30
                    • 刊出日期:  2021-08-20

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